Slide 1

Advantages of Space
Different phenomena produce different wavelength light
Ordinary stars:  Mostly Visible light
Cool planets or dust clouds:  Infrared light
Moving charged particles, cool molecules:  Radio/millimeter waves
Very hot objects:  X-Rays and Gamma Rays
Quasars: ALL wavelengths

Disadvantages of the Ground

Advantages of Space
Also, there is no atmospheric turbulence, and telescopes can be pointed very accurately and precisely.  This provides good, stable images.

Space-Based Astronomy
NASA’s suite of “Great Observatories”
The Hubble Space Telescope
The Spitzer Space Telescope
The Chandra X-ray Observatory
(“Deceased”: The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory)
Other missions: XMM-Newton (w/ESA), FUSE, Galex, WMAP, many others
Future: James Webb Space Telescope, Astro-E2, SNAP, TPF, GLAST, Swift, LISA, Constellation-X
Technical phrase is “Lots and lots and lots.”

Slide 6

Hubble Vital Statistics
HST is in Low Earth Orbit (~600 km)
Primary is 2.4 meters
Launched in 1990
“Regularly serviced”
Cost ~$2+ billion
Suite of changing instruments

The Hubble Deep Field

Hubble’s Uncertain Future
Jan. 2004, NASA Director Sean O’Keefe announced it was too dangerous to service HST with a shuttle mission (no aborts).
Without regular service, HST will fail
Gyroscopes & Orbital Decay
Service also provides upgrades
Computers!  Solar panels, etc.
Instruments!  STIS just failed.
Waiting on the “Next Generation” Space Telescope (NGST) renamed the James Webb Telescope (more later)

Chandra X-ray Observatory

The Highest Tech Mirrors Ever!
Chandra is the first X-ray telescope to have image as sharp as optical telescopes.

A “Type 2” Hidden Quasar
Left: Chandra, X-rays.  Right: optically normal galaxy.
X-rays can penetrate obscuring gas/dust.

Tycho’s Supernova Remnant

A Multiwavelength Look at Cygnus A
A merger-product, and powerful radio galaxy.

Crab Nebula Movie

Combining HST and Chandra:
The Crab Pulsar Wind
Chandra on the left, Hubble on the right.

Another HST, Chandra Combo
Galactic Winds get “Supersized” in NGC 3079
Nuclear starbursts and their resulting supernovas blow hot gas out from the core

ESA lead X-ray mission.
Resolution, is good, but not Chandra Good
Sensitivity and field of view are better.
Great for surveys and observations of, e.g., Galaxy Clusters

The Power of the Infrared

Spitzer Space Telescope
Heir to 1980s IRAS mission.
Mid to far IR.
Only 60 cm, Earth-trailing orbit, 5 year lifetime.
Imaging and mid-R spectroscopy.
DUST is important!

Spitzer Space Telescope
Dust, in the optical, HIDES light.
Dust in the mid/far infrared RADIATES light.
Star-forming regions look different, inverted in the infrared!

Spitzer Space Telescope
Discovered by a Wyoming grad student and professor.  The “Cowboy Cluster” – an overlooked Globular Cluster.

Kepler’s Supernova with all three of NASA’s Great Observatories
Just 400 years ago:         (Oct. 9, 1604)
Then a bright, naked eye object (no telescopes)
It’s still blowing up – now 14 light years wide and expanding at 4 million mph.
There’s material there at MANY temperatures, so many wavelengths are needed to understand it.



Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission
(Scheduled launch: November 8, 2004)
Gamma-Ray/X-ray Burst localizer
Will provide good, fast spatial coordinates for afterglow studies
Enigmatic sources, GRBs, and will help us figure out what they are (some are supernovas, but not all).

Terrestrial Planet Finder

James Webb Space Telescope
More than twice the diameter of Hubble.
Optimized for the red and infrared.
Designed to study first stars, high-z universe.

Multi-wavelength Astronomy

A Shameless Plug to Display during Q&A…