• Welcome Shitao(Aaron) Wang joining our research group.
  • The LTSTM has been installed, tested, and fully functioning.
  • The Low-Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope (LTSTM) from Omicron Nanotechnology (now Oxford Instruments) has been delivered.

Recent Publication:

  • H. J. Karmel, TeYu Chien, V. Demers-Carpentier, J. J. Garramone, and M. C. Hersam, "Self-assembled two-dimensional heteromolecular nanoporous molecular arrays on epitaxial graphene," J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 270 (2014).
  • TeYu Chien, L. F. Kourkoutis, J. Chakhalian, B. Gray, M. Kareev, N. P. Guisinger, D. A. Muller, and J. W. Freeland, "Visualizing short range charge transfer at the interfaces between ferromagnetic and superconducting oxides," Nature Commun. 4, 2336 (2013).
  • TeYu Chien, J. Chakhalian, J. W. Freeland, and N. P. Guisinger, "Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy applied to complex oxide interfaces", Adv. Funct. Mater. 23, 2565 (2013).

Toward Understanding Novel Materials' Properties

In our lab, we devoted our efforts to study the physical properties of materials, especially the properties of electrons, phonons (vibrational modes) and their interactions. Our goal is to provide the microscopic view of the macroscopic physical phenomena. Since the quantum physics was proposed in early 20th century, physicists study materials in a novel way: particles could have wave-like identities; while waves could also have particle-like identities. For examples, electron, one of the fundamental particles, is intuitively considered as particle. However, a electron could "tunnel through" a potential wall, with which the classic physics could not explain. Quantum mechanics successively describe the phenomena of "penetrating through a energy barrier" effect by considering the electron as a particle wave. This effect is the fundamental background of the Nobel Prize (year 1986) work - the invention of scanning tunneling microscope (STM), which is one of the state-of-the-art research tools used intensively nowadays. Another example is the atom/ion vibration modes in condensed materials. The vibration modes are intuitively considered as waves propagating heat through the interior of materials. However, this picture is failed when Albert Einstein tried to explain the heat capacity of a material with Einstein model, which treats the solid as many individual, non-interacting quantum harmonic oscillators. This issue was solved by Peter Debye who treat the vibrations as "phonons" (Debye model), which are, in concept, particles, or quasi-particles.

In short, to fully understand the physical properties of materials, one has to understand both sides of the identities - wave-like and particle-like behaviors. With the fact that the wave-like properties are easier to be described in momentum space; while the particle-like properties are easier to be understood in real space, scientists use tools probing physical properties either in momentum space (reciprocal space) and in real space. In our lab, as now focusing on studying electronic properties, we use STM as the tool for real space studies and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) for momentum space studies. By doing so, we could gain a thorough picture of the electronic properties of the materials of interest.

Real Space Reciprocal Space
Real Space Momentum Space

The Material Properties in Low Dimensional Systems

Dimensionality is very important and could alter the physical properties of the materials dramatically. Examples could be found in many nano-scale materials, which exhibit distinct properties from their bulk counterparts. Bulk materials are considered as three-dimensional (3D) materials; surfaces and interfaces are 2D environments; nanowires are 1D materials; while nano-dots are 0D materials. The criteria for the reduced dimensionality, the physical length scale has to be reduced to the length scale of the wavefunctions of the electrons, phonons or other quasiparticles in that particular materials. For 2D materials, such as surfaces and interfaces, the broken translational symmetry, spatial confinement and chemical engineering would be the major degree of freedom responsible for the exotic physical properties. Our lab is devoted to study these 2D physical properties in real and in reciprocal space, in order to gain a full understanding of the underlying fundamental physics, which controls the macroscopic behaviors.

Low Dimension
Novel Physics at Interfaces and Surfaces

Current Focuses/Projects

Currently, there are two major research directions that we focus on: (1) utilizing the developed technique of cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (XSTM/S) for non-cleavable materials on all-oxide electronic devices; (2) extending the XSTM/S technique to probe the interface band interactions in the next generation solar cell devices.

Interfaces of Complex Oxides Probed by XSTM/S

We have successfully developed a controllable way to fracture complex oxide hetero-epitaxial thin film and probed with XSTM/S, which revealed the band alignment between two different complex oxide materials. Complex oxide materials are considered to have great potential for developing novel electronic devices due to its great variety of functionalities. Many of the functionalities could be engineered at the interfaces of the complex oxides, the understanding of the interfaces are essential for the applications. However, since complex oxides, unlike traditional semiconductors, have strong correlated and coupled environment for electrons, spins, lattices and phonon modes, the validity of the conventional semiconductor physics (based on assumption of weak correlation/coupling) on complex oxides are not established. We will focus on probing the interface band interaction of complex oxide in device form while it's on operating condition. Systematic study of the band interaction could pave the path to understand the engineer of the complex oxide electronic devices.

Interfaces of Next Generation Solar Cells Probed by XSTM/S

Nowadays, energy generation is heavily depended on the fossil fuels. The development of renewable energy sources is essential not only because the goal of reducing the impact on the climate change, but also the goal of replacing the limited fossil fuel resources. Solar energy is one of the renewable energy sources. Cheap and efficient solar cells are the keys to boost the harvesting of the solar energy. Among the different types of solar cells, organic photovoltaic cells (OPVC), dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) and quantum-dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSC) are the promising candidates of next generation solar cell techniques. Despite the intensive study on these devices, the band interaction/relationship at the interfaces of the electron donor/acceptor in OPVC and/or of the sensitizer/photoanode in DSSC and QDSSC in nano-meter scale is relatively unexplored. In our lab, we focus on extending the developed XSTM/S technique to probe the interfaces of those solar cell devices, in order to reveal the band interaction/relationship in device form under operating conditions. This information could provide the crucial information of further understand the solar cells microscopically and would help to point out the direction of improving the efficiency.

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Any comment/suggestion, please contact TeYu Chien